How do statins work mevalonate?

How do statins work mevalonate?

1 Introduction. The effect of statins on the mevalonate pathway. Statins inhibit conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by competitive inhibition of the rate limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. Statins inhibit conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by competitive inhibition of the rate limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase.

What pathway do statins block?

By inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, statins block the pathway for synthesizing cholesterol in the liver. This is significant because most circulating cholesterol comes from internal manufacture rather than the diet. When the liver can no longer produce cholesterol, levels of cholesterol in the blood will fall.

How do statin drugs affect the intermediates of cholesterol synthesis pathway?

In vitro statins act indeed as competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. When statins are bound to HMGCR, they block the access of the natural substrate HMG-CoA to the catalytic site and thereby interfere with cholesterol synthesis (4).

What is the mevalonate pathway responsible for?

cholesterol synthesis
The mevalonate pathway, fundamental for cholesterol synthesis, is one of the most important metabolic networks in the cell; it provides essential cell constituents, such as cholesterol, and some of its branches produce key metabolites, such as geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate, necessary for …

Where does the mevalonate pathway occur?

In higher plants, the MEP pathway operates in plastids while the mevalonate pathway operates in the cytosol. Examples of bacteria that contain the MEP pathway include Escherichia coli and pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

How do statins inhibit HMG-CoA reductase?

Statins act by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and thereby reducing cholesterol synthesis. In addition to bonds formed by the HMG-like moiety, statins exhibit different types and numbers of binding interactions in association with structural differences.

How do statins block HMG-CoA reductase?

Statins act by competitively binding to the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase, HMGCR)8,9 and blocking the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, the rate-limiting step of cholesterol biosynthesis.

How statins bind to and inhibit their target HMG-CoA?

Statins competitively inhibit the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme. Statins bind to the active site of the enzyme and change its structure. As the structure of the enzyme is changed, it cannot bind with the receptor, thus its activity is reduced.

Do statins have an impact on how cholesterol affects membrane potential?

Statins may also interfere with cholesterol crystal development by reduc- ing levels of unesterified cholesterol in the vascular cell plasma membrane. Statins also reduce LDL oxidation, a key initiator of endothelial dysfunction.

What does the shikimate pathway produce?

The shikimate pathway (shikimic acid pathway) is a seven-step metabolic pathway used by bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, some protozoans, and plants for the biosynthesis of folates and aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine).

What does the isoprenoid pathway produce?

The pathway produces two five-carbon building blocks called isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), which are used to make isoprenoids, a diverse class of over 30,000 biomolecules such as cholesterol, vitamin K, coenzyme Q10, and all steroid hormones.

Is cholesterol an isoprenoid?

All isoprenoids and sterols in the body, including cholesterol, are derived from mevalonate. Mevalonate is derived from a 4-electron reduction of HMG-CoA, an early step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol catalyzed by the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase.

How do statins work in the mevalonate pathway?

Statins inhibit HMG-CoA reductase within the mevalonate pathway. The mevalonate pathway of eukaryotes, archaea, and eubacteria all begin the same way. The sole carbon feed stock of the pathway is acetyl-CoA. The first step condenses two acetyl-CoA molecules to yield acetoacetyl-CoA.

Why inhibit enzymes in the mevalonate pathway?

Inhibition of enzymes in the mevalonate pathway has also proved to be an effective route to the development of antifungal agents useful in human and animal therapeutics and in other agrochemical applications.

What are the steps in the mevalonate pathway?

The first step condenses two acetyl-CoA molecules to yield acetoacetyl-CoA. This is followed by a second condensation to form HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3- methyl-glutaryl-CoA). Reduction of HMG-CoA yields (R)-mevalonate. These first 3 enzymatic steps are called the upper mevalonate pathway.

What is the role of squalene synthase in cholesterol biosynthesis?

Squalene synthase catalyzes the first reaction of the pathway committed exclusively to cholesterol biosynthesis and plays a crucial role in directing intermediates to either sterol or non-sterol branches of this metabolic pathway. The oncogenic potential of the mevalonate pathway has also been investigated.