How do you control bitou bush?
Mature bitou bush plants can be slashed, whilst seedlings can be hand-pulled to remove the entire root system. Plants are liable to resprout after slashing alone, but applying herbicide to stems immediately after cutting should prevent regrowth.
Why is the bitou bush bad?
It is regarded as one of the worst weeds in Australia because of its invasiveness, potential for spread, and economic and environmental impacts. Bitou bush threatens coastal dune vegetation along Australia’s east coast. Infestations of bitou bush drastically alter the environment for many native birds and animals.
When was the bitou bush introduced?
Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) is a highly invasive coastal weed, originating in South Africa. It was introduced to Australia at Stockton in 1908, but didn’t spread significantly until the 1950’s, when it was used to stabilise sand dunes after mining.
Is Paterson’s curse poisonous to cattle?
Paterson’s curse is poisonous to grazing animals. The plant contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which cause cumulative chronic liver damage, loss of condition and sometimes death. The alkaloid concentration of plants in the rosette stage is twice that of flowering plants.
When was Bitou Bush introduced in Australia?
It was accidentally introduced to Australia in the early 1900s, but from 1946 to 1968 was planted quite extensively for coastal dune stabilisation following sand mining. Today, bitou bush is one of Australia’s worst weeds, being included among 20 Weeds of National Significance (WONS).
Is Paterson’s curse Salvation Jane?
Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum), also known as salvation Jane, is a major weed in winter pastures throughout southern Australia and can be a problem in areas of natural vegetation. The weed is native to Mediterranean Europe and northern Africa.
Is Paterson’s curse native to Australia?
Paterson’s curse is native to Mediterranean Europe and northern Africa. It was both accidentally and deliberately introduced to Australia in the 1850s and by 1890 it was showing potential as a major weed. Paterson’s curse now occurs in all States and Territories in Australia.
What does Patterson curse look like?
Paterson’s curse is an erect herb commonly 60 cm high, but it can grow up to 150 cm. Rosettes have green to light-green hairy, egg- shaped leaves that may grow to 30 cm long. The rosettes are stalked and have distinct, branched veins.
Is Salvation Jane native to Australia?
Salvation Jane noun a biennial herb, Echium plantagineum, native to the Mediterranean area but widely naturalised in settled parts of Australia, having blue-purple flowers.
Why is Jane salvation?
Paterson’s curse (Echium plantagineum) is an invasive plant species in Australia. The name Salvation Jane originated from, and is mostly used in, South Australia due to its use as a source of food for grazing animals when the less drought-tolerant grazing pastures die off.
Can goats eat Patterson curse?
Horses and pigs are highly susceptible to poisoning by Paterson’s curse. Cattle are moderately susceptible, while sheep and goats are only slightly susceptible.
What herbicide kills Paterson’s curse?
|Situation||Herbicide (active ingredient)||Application rate of commercial product|
|Seedlings to shooting plants||Glyphosate||50 – 70 ml/ 15 L water|
|Sulfmeturon||3 – 6 g/ 15 L water|
|Rosette to early flowering.||Metsulfuron-methyl||5 g/100 L water|
|Flowering||Ticlopyr + *Picloram + Aminopyralid||25 ml/10 L water|
How do you get rid of Bitou bushes?
Pulling bushes is practical treatment because bitou bush has shallow root system with no distinct taproot, unlike many other woody weeds. Fire will destroy seedlings and many mature plants but will stimulate seed germination. Control resulting seedlings.
Is Bitou an invasive species?
Bitou bush is an aggressive weed in coastal dune vegetation where it can outcompete, and in many cases totally eliminate, the native flora. The invasive success of bitou bush is due to its vigorous growth and prolific seed production.
Where do Bitou plants grow?
Bitou bush grows in a range of environments from open exposed dunes to shaded forests. It is tolerant of shade, salinity, strong wind, wind-blown sand, salt and water, drought, low nutrients and, to some extent, of disturbances such as fire. Bitou bush grows poorly in wet or swampy soils and has a low tolerance to frost.
How does Bitou affect the environment?
Bitou bush displaces the dominant plants in communities it invades, for instance Acacia sophorae on coastal dunes, and leads to a decline in floral biodiversity, as well as changes in the diversity of birds, indigenous mammals and ground-dwelling insects.