What is a Carnot engine explain the Carnot cycle with a PV diagram?
Carnot engine is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by Leonard Carnot. It estimates the maximum possible efficiency that a heat engine during the conversion process of heat into work and, conversely, working between two reservoirs can possess.
What is Carnot cycle explain in detail?
Definition of Carnot cycle : an ideal reversible closed thermodynamic cycle in which the working substance goes through the four successive operations of isothermal expansion to a desired point, adiabatic expansion to a desired point, isothermal compression, and adiabatic compression back to its initial state.
What are the four processes that make up the Carnot cycle?
7.3. The four stages in the Carnot cycle. (A) Stage 1: Isothermal expansion under heat input Q1, (B) Stage 2: Adiabatic expansion accompanied by a fall in temperature T1 to T2, (C) Stage 3: Isothermal compression, Q2 exhausted, (D) Stage 4: Adiabatic compression accompanied by an increase in temperature T2 to T1.
What is a Carnot cycle find the expression for the work done by a Carnot engine find its efficiency?
efficiency =WQH=1−TCTH. These temperatures are of course in degrees Kelvin, so for example the efficiency of a Carnot engine having a hot reservoir of boiling water and a cold reservoir ice cold water will be 1−(273/373)=0.27, just over a quarter of the heat energy is transformed into useful work.
What is Lord Kelvin statement?
The Kelvin–Planck statement (or the Heat Engine Statement) of the second law of thermodynamics states that it is impossible to devise a cyclically operating heat engine, the effect of which is to absorb energy in the form of heat from a single thermal reservoir and to deliver an equivalent amount of work.
What is TS diagram of Carnot cycle?
The temperature-entropy diagram (Ts diagram), in which the thermodynamic state is specified by a point on a graph with specific entropy (s) as the horizontal axis and absolute temperature (T) as the vertical axis, is the best diagram to describe the behavior of a Carnot cycle.
What does TS diagram represent?
A temperature–entropy diagram, or T–s diagram, is a thermodynamic diagram used in thermodynamics to visualize changes to temperature and specific entropy during a thermodynamic process or cycle as the graph of a curve.
How many processes are there in a Carnot cycle?
3 The Carnot Cycle It has four processes. There are two adiabatic reversible legs and two isothermal reversible legs.
How do you calculate work done by an engine?
The useful work done by a heat engine is W = Q1 – Q2 (energy conservation). An ideal reversible engine does the maximum amount of work. Any real engine delivers more heat Q2 at the reservoir at T2 than a reversible one and therefore does less useful work.
What is Clausius and Kelvin Planck and explain its significance?
Reversible work is defined by the amount of energy transferred to or from the system independent of the temperature of the system. Hence, the second law of thermodynamics expresses that the spontaneous or natural direction of energy transfer or conversion is toward increasing entropy.
What is Lord Kelvin most famous for?
Scottish-Irish physicist William Thomson, better known as Lord Kelvin, was one of the most eminent scientists of the 19th century and is best known today for inventing the international system of absolute temperature that bears his name.
How do you plot the Carnot cycle?
The Carnot cycle is often plotted on a pressure- volume diagram ( pV diagram) and on a temperature-entropy diagram ( Ts diagram ).
What is a Carnot engine?
This engine is called the Carnot engine or ideal heat engine. He suggested the working process for this Carnot engine and this cyclic process is known as Carnot cycle. 1). Insulated non conducting stand
What is the temperature of the cold reservoir in a Carnot engine?
The Carnot Engine A Carnot engine has an efficiency of 0.60 and the temperature of its cold reservoir is 300 K. (a) What is the temperature of the hot reservoir? (b) If the engine does 300 J of work per cycle, how much heat is removed from the high-temperature reservoir per cycle?
What is the cycle of an ideal gas Carnot refrigerator?
The cycle of an ideal gas Carnot refrigerator is represented by the pV diagram of (Figure). It is a Carnot engine operating in reverse. The refrigerator extracts heat from a cold-temperature reservoir at when the ideal gas expands isothermally.