What is a chemokine ligand?

What is a chemokine ligand?

Gene group: Chemokine ligands (CCL) Also known as : “Chemokines” A subgroup of : “Receptor ligands” Created with Raphaël 2.1.0 Gene group hierarchy map Receptor ligands Chemokine ligands. Chemokine Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.

What is CXC motif?

C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL) are small chemokines which contain the sequence Cys-X-Cys at their C-terminal. The CXCL are subdivided into 2 groups: ELR positive (containing Glu-Leu-Arg preceding the C-X-C) and ELR negative.

What is a chemokine cytokine?

Chemokines are a family of chemoattractant cytokines (small proteins secreted by cells that influence the immune system) which play a vital role in cell migration through venules from blood into tissue and vice versa, and in the induction of cell movement in response to a chemical (chemokine) gradient by a process …

What are the four classes of chemokines?

Chemokines have been classified into four main subfamilies: CXC, CC, CX3C and C. All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein-linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors, that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells.

Is VEGF a chemokine?

Here, we provide evidence that VEGF promotes endothelial cell chemokine production in vitro and in vivo and functions in the recruitment of monocytes and T cells into allografts. VEGF is thus an important proinflammatory cytokine in transplant rejection.

Where is CCR7 found?

CCR7 is expressed at high levels on naïve and central memory T cells and enables homeostasis T cell subsets to recirculate and home to T cell areas in lymphoid organs, such as the white pulp areas of the spleen and lymph nodes (Rot and von Andrian, 2004; Schaerli and Moser, 2005).

What does CXC chemokine stand for?

CXC chemokines are small proteins; CXC refers to the location of the two cysteine residues near the N-terminal, with the X representing any amino acid (cysteine-containing motif)[9].

What does CXC mean immunology?

CXC. Cysteine X Cysteine (immunology)

What do chemokines do?

The chemokines (or chemotactic cytokines) are a large family of small, secreted proteins that signal through cell surface G protein-coupled heptahelical chemokine receptors. They are best known for their ability to stimulate the migration of cells, most notably white blood cells (leukocytes).

How do chemokines work?

Chemokines activate immune cells by binding to receptors displayed on their surfaces. The chemokine receptor is one of the G protein-coupled receptors, with a G-protein component on the inside of the cell that induces cell signalling pathways when the receptor is activated.

What are examples of chemokines?

Examples of homeostatic chemokines are CCL14, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CXCL12 and CXCL13. Nevertheless, some of them are not exclusive to this function. For instance, CCL20 is also associated with inflammation since it can act as pro-inflammatory chemokine as well.

Is VEGF a proinflammatory?

What are the different types of CXCL ligands?

It has three highly related ligands in mammals, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. CXCR4 (also known as fusin) is the receptor for a chemokine known as CXCL12 (or SDF-1) and, as with CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells.

How many CXC chemokine receptors are there?

There are currently six known CXC chemokine receptors in mammals, named CXCR1 through CXCR6. CXCR1 and CXCR2 are closely related receptors that recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif.

What is the function of the CXCL12 receptor?

CXCR4 (also known as fusin) is the receptor for a chemokine known as CXCL12 (or SDF-1) and, as with CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells. This receptor has a wide cellular distribution, with expression on most immature and mature hematopoietic cell types (e.g. neutrophils, monocytes, T and B cells, dendritic cells,…

What is an example of an ELR-positive CXC chemokine?

An example of an ELR-positive CXC chemokine is interleukin-8 (IL-8), which induces neutrophils to leave the bloodstream and enter into the surrounding tissue. Other CXC chemokines that lack the ELR motif, such as CXCL13, tend to be chemoattractant for lymphocytes. CXC chemokines bind to CXC chemokine receptors,…