What is PKPD analysis?
Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic (PKPD) analysis is an alternative to conventional dose-effect analysis, and it relates drug effects to a measure of drug concentration in a body compartment (e.g., venous blood) rather than to drug dose.
What is pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic?
In simple words, pharmacokinetics is ‘what the body does to the drug’. Pharmacodynamics describes the intensity of a drug effect in relation to its concentration in a body fluid, usually at the site of drug action. It can be simplified to ‘what the drug does to the body’.
What do you mean by pharmacodynamics?
Pharmacodynamics is the study of a drug’s molecular, biochemical, and physiologic effects or actions. It comes from the Greek words “pharmakon” meaning “drug” and “dynamikos” meaning “power.”
What is an example of pharmacodynamics?
The term “pharmacodynamic interactions” refers to interactions in which drugs influence each other’s effects directly. As a rule, for example, sedatives can potentiate each other. The same is true of alcohol, which can potentiate the sedative effects of many drugs.
What does PK PD stand for?
Pharmacokinetics vs. Pharmacodynamics. The main difference between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is that pharmacokinetics (PK) is defined as the movement of drugs through the body, whereas pharmacodynamics (PD) is defined as the body’s biological response to drugs.
What does PBPK stand for?
Physiological based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation (PBPK) is a computer modeling approach that incorporates blood flow and tissue composition of organs to define the pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs. The concept of PBPK was first described by Teorell in 1937.
What is Pharmaceutic phase?
The pharmaceutic phase (dissolution) is the first phase of drug action. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, drugs need to be in solution so they can be absorbed. A drug in solid form (tablet or capsule) must disintegrate into small particles to dissolve into a liquid, a process known as dissolution.
What are the components of pharmacodynamics?
Pharmacodynamics consists of the following:
- Affinity: attraction between a drug and its receptor.
- Efficacy: the drug’s ability to activate the receptor once it has bound to it.
- Potency: the amount of a drug that’s necessary to produce a desired effect.
- Agonist: a drug that promotes the activity of its receptor.
What do you mean by agonist?
Agonist: A substance that acts like another substance and therefore stimulates an action. Agonist is the opposite of antagonist. Antagonists and agonists are key players in the chemistry of the human body and in pharmacology.
How is pharmacodynamics measured?
Pediatric pharmacodynamic measures: what are they? PD is broadly defined as “what the drug does to the body” and is often characterized as drug response. PD endpoints measure a drug’s activity in the body using biomarkers and/or clinical outcomes to quantify efficacy and safety (3).
Which are is source’s of drug?
Drugs are obtained from six major sources: Plant sources. Animal sources. Mineral/ Earth sources.
Is PK SIM free?
PK-Sim® and MoBi® for PBPK and Quantitative Systems Pharmacology. Reliable, powerful and easy-to-use modeling & simulation tools for pharmaceutical and other life-sciences applications. Qualified and accepted by the scientific community including academia, regulatory agencies and industry. Available free to everyone.
How does pKa relate to PKB?
Ka and Kb are related to each other through the ion constant for water, Kw: Ka is the acid dissociation constant. pKa is simply the -log of this constant. Similarly, Kb is the base dissociation constant, while pKb is the -log of the constant.
What are PKA and pKb values?
Whenever you see a “p” in front of a value, like pH, pKa, and pKb, it means you’re dealing with a -log of the value following the “p”. For example, pKa is the -log of Ka. Because of the way the log function works, a smaller pKa means a larger Ka. pH is the -log of hydrogen ion concentration, and so on.
What is a pKa and pKb value?
Smaller the pKb value, weaker the base. pKa and pKb are used to compare the strength of acids and bases respectively. pKa is given for acid dissociations. pKb is given for dissociation of bases. The difference between pKa and pKb is that pKa is the negative logarithm of Ka whereas pKb is the negative logarithm of Kb .
What are pKb values of bases?
pK b is the negative base-10 logarithm of the base dissociation constant (K b) of a solution. It is used to determine the strength of a base or alkaline solution. pKb = -log 10 K b The lower the pK b value, the stronger the base.