## What is topological Hall effect?

Topological Hall Effect in Topological Insulator/Magnetic Insulator Bilayer | Project Summary: The topological Hall effect (THE) is a phenomenon that is a consequence of a Berry phase created by spin textures in real space.

**What is meant by topological insulators?**

A topological insulator is a material that behaves as an insulator in its interior but whose surface contains conducting states, meaning that electrons can only move along the surface of the material.

**Why topological insulator is important?**

A relative newcomer in the field, and one of growing importance to condensed matter physicists, is the topological insulator: it manipulates electricity unlike anything else known in nature or in the laboratory. In its interior, or bulk, the topological insulator stops current, just like a conventional insulator.

### How can we identify a topological insulator?

unambiguous experimental identification of topological insulators (TIs) requires resolving the Dirac cone in the band structure of the non-trivial surface states….

- Shubnikov De Haas Oscillation study (Quantum Hall effect)
- Angle Resolved Photo Emission Spectrosopy (ARPES).
- STM studies under high magnetic field.

**What exactly is a Skyrmion?**

A skyrmion can be described as a swirling quasi-particle, a knot of twisting field lines, or a subatomic hurricane. They’re also one of the most difficult physics concepts for humans to understand.

**How do topological insulators work?**

In a topological insulator, an electron’s spin correlates with its motion, suggesting that if a device can control the path of the electron, it can also control the spin, which means those “up” or “down” spin states could be controlled like computer bits. Such a device would theoretically stay cool.

## What are topological states?

A topologically ordered state is a state with complicated non-local quantum entanglement. The non-locality means that the quantum entanglement in a topologically ordered state is distributed among many different particles. As a result, the pattern of quantum entanglements cannot be destroyed by local perturbations.

**Why are topological materials important?**

By using the right topological materials, the scientists calculated that topological transistors could consume just half the voltage and one-quarter the energy of standard transistors. “Computing today uses 8 to 10 percent of the world’s electricity, and is doubling every decade,” Fuhrer says.

**What is a topological Axion insulator?**

Peter Armitage. Topological insulators are unique states of matter that – despite an insulating bulk – harbor topologically protected surface states. However, axion insulators break time reversal symmetry and will exhibit a very large and intrinsic magnetoelectric response. …

### How are skyrmions created?

There are several ways to create skyrmions. Some appear spontaneously due to the dimensions or geometry of the material, while others are formed by external interference, such as the application of an electric current or magnetic pulses.

**How are skyrmions made?**

A topologically stable quasiparticle normally associated with spin textures in magnetic materials has now been created using sound waves in air. Skyrmions are topologically stable quasiparticles that can form in a vector field, such as the spin texture of a magnetic material.

**What is topological superconductor?**

Study gathers evidence of topological superconductivity in the transition metal 4Hb-TaS2. Topological superconductors are a class of superconducting materials characterized by sub-gap zero energy localized modes, known as Majorana boundary states (MBSs).