Where are P2X7 receptors found?
P2X7 receptors are found on macrophages and monocytes, where they play an important role in triggering the release of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (Solle et al., 2001).
What does P2X7 do?
P2X7 receptor is involved in several physiological and pathological conditions in different body systems by modulating cellular responses in immune and non-immune cells in a variety of disease (Burnstock, 2017b).
What are macrophages?
Listen to pronunciation. (MA-kroh-fayj) A type of white blood cell that surrounds and kills microorganisms, removes dead cells, and stimulates the action of other immune system cells.
What is macrophage receptor?
Macrophages express a broad range of plasma membrane receptors that mediate their interactions with natural and altered-self components of the host as well as a range of microorganisms.
What is P2X7R?
The P2X7R is an extracellular ATP-gated ion channel with peculiar permeability properties expressed by most cell types, mainly in the immune system, where it has a leading role in cytokine release, oxygen radical generation, T lymphocyte differentiation and proliferation.
What does a Histiocyte do?
A histiocyte is a normal immune cell that is found in many parts of the body especially in the bone marrow, the blood stream, the skin, the liver, the lungs, the lymph glands and the spleen. In histiocytosis, the histiocytes move into tissues where they are not normally found and cause damage to those tissues.
What are examples of macrophages?
|Cell Name||Anatomical Location|
|Adipose tissue macrophages||Adipose tissue (fat)|
|Monocytes||Bone marrow / blood|
|Sinus histiocytes||Lymph nodes|
What is the role of the macrophages?
Macrophages are key components of the innate immune system that reside in tissues, where they function as immune sentinels. They are uniquely equipped to sense and respond to tissue invasion by infectious microorganisms and tissue injury through various scavenger, pattern recognition and phagocytic receptors1,2,3,4.
Do macrophages recognize human cells?
The human immune system consists of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Myeloid cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells play a key role in the innate immune system by recognizing and removing bacteria. Innate immunity is native to humans and indispensable for the maintenance of life.
What is histiocyte and macrophage?
DCs, monocytes, and macrophages are members of the mononuclear phagocyte system,2 whereas a histiocyte is a morphological term referring to tissue-resident macrophages. Macrophages are large ovoid cells mainly involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells, debris, and pathogens.
Is a histiocyte a monocyte?
The term Histiocyte can also simply refer to a cell from monocyte origin outside the blood system, such as in a tissue (as in rheumatoid arthritis as palisading histiocytes surrounding fibrinoid necrosis of rheumatoid nodules). Some sources consider Langerhans cell derivatives to be histiocytes.
What are microglial cells?
Microglia represent a specialized population of macrophages-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS) considered immune sentinels that are capable of orchestrating a potent inflammatory response.
What does p2x7r do in M1 macrophages?
In M1 macrophages, beyond NLRP3-inflammasome induced IL-1β and IL-18 release, P2X7R also controls the release other proteins, including lysosomal proteases (cathepsin B and S) or inflammasome components (ASC, NALP3, caspase-1) 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, suggesting that in M1 macrophages P2X7R couples to a secretome that has been poorly characterized.
What is the role of p2x7r in the pathophysiology of inflammatory response?
The activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) on M1 polarized macrophages induces the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the establishment of the inflammatory response. However, P2X7R signaling to the NLRP3 inflammasome is uncoupled on M2 macrophages without changes on receptor activation.
What is the role of P2X7 in colorectal cancer?
P2X7R promotes angiogenesis and tumour-associated macrophage recruitment by regulating the NF-kappaB signalling pathway in colorectal cancer cells. The effect of P2X7 on cadmium-induced osteoporosis in mice.
Where are P2X7 receptors found in microglia?
In microglia, P2X 7 receptors are found mostly on the cell surface. Conserved cysteine residues located in the carboxyl terminus seem to be important for receptor trafficking to the cell membrane.