Where is the calcaneal tuberosity?
The half of the bone closest to the heel is the calcaneal tuberosity. On its lower edge on either side are its lateral and medial processes (serving as the origins of the abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi).
What is calcaneal squeeze test?
A positive calcaneal squeeze test (i.e., pain on squeezing the sides of the calcaneus) suggests the diagnosis. Radiography often does not reveal a fracture, so bone scans, computed tomography, or MRI may be required15,16 (Figure 31).
What muscles attach to the calcaneal tuberosity?
The gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris: They are the primary plantar flexors that combine to form the Achilles tendon. The Achilles tendon attaches to the calcaneal tubercle.
What structures attaches to the calcaneal tuberosity?
- Triceps surae, i.e. gastrocnemius and soleus (insertion: middle facet of posterior surface of calcaneus through calcaneal/Achilles tendon.
- Abductor hallucis (origin: the medial process of calcaneal tuberosity)
- Flexor digitorum brevis (origin: the medial process of calcaneal tuberosity and plantar aponeurosis)
Is plantar fasciitis tender to palpation?
Diagnosis is primarily based on history and physical examination. Patients may present with heel pain with their first steps in the morning or after prolonged sitting, and sharp pain with palpation of the medial plantar calcaneal region.
What is windlass test?
The windlass test achieves a direct stretch on the plantar aponeurosis which can be effective in examining dysfunction of the plantar fascia. The test can be important in the decision-making process involved in the evaluation and treatment of plantar fasciitis.
What is heel pad syndrome?
Heel pad syndrome is a condition that can develop due to changes in the thickness and elasticity of your heel pad. It’s typically caused by wear and tear of the fatty tissue and muscle fibers that make up the cushioned pad on the soles of your feet.
What is the tuberosity of the calcaneus?
Calcaneal tuberosity – Tuber calcanei. The inferior surface (plantar surface) of calcaneus is bounded posteriorly by a transverse elevation, the calcaneal tuberosity, which is depressed in the middle and prolonged at either end into a process; the lateral process, small, prominent, and rounded, gives origin to part of the Abductor digiti quinti;
What is a Hori Zontal fracture of the calcaneus?
When the shear line is lateral, there is a large medial fragment that may or may not push down: most often the posterior calcaneal tuberosity and the rest of the calcaneus are moved up and displaced in a varus, flexed position. This is a hori- zontal fracture (Fig.1b).
How are calcaneal fractures diagnosed and analysed?
Calcaneal fractures can be easily understood and analysed on the preoperative CT-scan once the position of the Palmer’s fundamental fracture line has been located.
How are articular fractures of the calcaneus treated?
Preoperative CT scans for articular fractures of the calcaneus have become routine. A minimum of 250 thin, contiguous slices of the calcaneus must be made in order to obtain volume rendering reconstructions. Simple sagittal and horizontal reconstructions are not, in fact, sufficient for a quality analysis.